Why do some urban communities provide secure environments, good education, adequate health care, and other factors that promote human development, while others fail to do so? What determines whether or not decision-making is transparent, leaders are accountable, and citizens enjoy good governance? These questions are key for policy makers, development specialists, and others who seek to improve the lives of millions who suffer from violence, poor education, unattended illnesses, and lost opportunities at the hands of corrupt leaders. The information generated from research on urbanization thus far tends to consider urban areas as monolithic, but we observe great variation in service provision including health, education, and security, as well as citizen-state linkages among communities within the same city across the developing world. We need to identify where these disparities exist and to understand their root causes. This requires a research approach that takes local governance and micro-level variations into account. Employing highly clustered, large N surveys (~25,000 respondents in total) that are representative at the local level, this study aims to explain the local variation in governance and service provision in the context of three urbanizing African countries: Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia. Co-Principal Investigator with Ellen Lust, Adam Harris, Boniface Dulani, Pierre Landry. Funded.