What are the conditions under which civilians will accept neighbors who collaborated with an insurgent group back into their community after conflict? Does punishment of rebel collaborators facilitate post-conflict reintegration? What are the effects of the identity of a rThe recent refugee crisis in Europe is primarily an urban phenomenon, and one that creates new economic, social and political challenges. This program investigates how urban municipalities address forced migration, considering how it not only changes the social composition of neighborhoods but also influences norms and behaviors within them. The program will implement collaborative research projects in cities hosting influxes of Syrian refugees in countries with very different policies towards migrants: Sweden, Jordan and Turkey. This program provides an infrastructure for collaboration between international scholars with expertise in migration studies, political science, and sociology in the Nordic region and the Middle East. Using innovative methods including large N surveys (6,000 respondents in each country), elite interviews, focus groups, and field experiments using virtual reality 360 video technology and face-to-face dialogues with refugees, this program investigates and analyzes the nexus between political and social institutions in shaping processes of integration and fills a critical gap in migration studies. Only 11% of applications were funded. With Andrea Spehar (Co-Principal Investigator), Ellen Lust, Josepha Wessels, Isabel Schierenbeck, and Mine Eder. Funded.